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Main Structure on Great Wall

Great Wall is the main part of this defense system. It was built in the lofty mountains and steep hills or Plains and obstacles, according to need of terrain and defense function and construction. In the plain or fortified place the wall is built very tall and sturdy, and in the alpine built low and narrow, in order to save manpower and cost. Even some of the steep sections are built in place which is hard to approach, like the Juyongguan, Badaling, Shanxi, Gansu and other areas of the Great Wall, with an average of about seven or eight meters high; from the bottom to the top of the wall thickness of about six or seven meters, a width of four or five meters. At the top of the wall, it is arranged in the inner side, more than one meter high, to prevent the soldiers while patrolling from dropping off the wall. Lateral side is set with crenel wall, 2 meters high. The upper crenel wall set at the mouth, the lower part of a fire hole and grind stone hole, to watch the enemy and shot through, or rolling stones down.

Great Wall

The city pass is very important, located in the favorable defensive terrain with very little force to resist the powerful invaders, vividly explaining the importance of pass city. Along the Great Wall the city is big or small. Near some big pass city are more than ten small pass cities on the mountain near the customs, common components of the Great Wall defense engineering construction system. Some important Pass City has several lines, such as in the area beyond Shanhaiguan Pass. The north of Badaling is the most important defense of Juyongguan sentinel. Beacon Tower is one of the most important parts of the Great Wall defense. Its role is to act as transmitting military facilities. Beacon Tower is used for the transmission of information which has been around for a long time. Transfer method is burning smoke during the day, setting the fire at night (because the daytime sunlight is very strong, the fire is not easy to see), night light visible from far away. This way of transmitting information is very scientific and very rapid method. There are some ways to signal the number of the invaders with smoke and fire, to enhance the alarm effect.

Overall, the Great Wall is more than just a long wall, but a complicated engineering feat.