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What is Horse-face of the Great Wall

The Horse-face is a kind structure built as part of the city wall. The Horse-face cannot be found on the early Ming Dynasty city wall of Nanjing and the capital city wall of Fengyang. However, according to the Nanjing city wall construction inspection, the plane was irregular in shape, the wall between the both sides played the role of the horse-face, so there was no need to build a horse-face there. This shows that the ancients is not in the design of building walls just to follow the beaten track, traditional custom, but suit one's measures to local conditions to build a variety of city wall facilities. Ming Emperor Zhu Di moved the capital to Beijing and started to build "horse-face" on the city wall. During 32th year of Jiajing reign (1553 AD) when the south city was built, there were 172 horse-faces built on the wall. There were two sizes, with distance of 60~100 meters, according to estimation it is built to fit different range weapons. The city is more important in the strategic defense of the Ming Dynasty. During Zhu Shuang reign, Xian City had 98 horse-faces, 20 meters wide, 12 meters long, rectangular shape. Outside of the wall is provided with a horse-face wall, the left and right sides of the wall opened a crenel, it is easy to throw stone, shoot the arrow, to stop the enemy attack.

Great Wall

The horse-face structure is not positive wall crenellation, about two higher than the wall foot, can prevent the city under the vector bomb wounding. The distance between the horse-faces is 120 meters, perfect for shooting the ancient arrow, crossbows, throwing stones, such as throwing weapons with effective range, thus outside the main wall, the high dense crossfire network was formed to improve the defense function. Coastal city such as Jiangsu, Nantong City, there are also horse-face structures built. In order to enhance the ability of defense, on the horse-face generally the watchtowers are built, which can be used for soldiers for outlook, and store weapons - the defensive performance enhanced to the highest point. Xian city wall features double eaves and two watchtowers, showing the military defense. During wartime it can be used as defense to observe the enemy's situation, to prevent the enemy attacking from below.

Overall, the horse-face structure is an important part of the defense system of the Great Wall.