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Did Great Wall Serve as Territory Border

Most of the time, the Great Wall did not serve as the border, especially during Ming Dynasty. In Ming dynasty, the Mongolian people still believed that they are the masters of Chinese people. The main reason for that is because they once ruled the inner land before they were forced back outside the Great Wall. They had ruled the inner land for over a hundred years. They were overthrown by the farmer army led by Zhuyuanzhang and after that they had to get back to their former territory - that is located outside the Great Wall. However, the Mongolian people still did not admit the loss of the rule of China. For quite a long time, they still used the Yuan Dynasty. So if the Mongolian people did not think of them as outlandish people, then the Great Wall was not border at all.

Great Wall of China

From another perspective, the Chinese dynasty also did not deem the Great Wall as a border. The reason lies in the fact that there was a vast land located outside the Great Wall, and the land also belonged to the feudal dynasty. So it is impossible to treat the Great Wall as border. In Ming dynasty, there were a bunch of departments set up for the defense of the Great Wall and there were a few of them situated outside the Great Wall, including Liaoning, Daning and Wanquan sections of the Great Wall. In the beginning of Ming dynasty, the government set up a series of administrative departments in Liaoning and Inner Mongolia to the purpose of the defense of the Great Wall. Those administrative departments were scattered across the northern area of China.

All of the above-mentioned facts lead to a conclusion that the Great Wall did not serve as the border, both in the eyes of the Mongolian people and the Chinese feudal emperors. Most of the time, Ming dynasty held a tight reign over the northern area outside the Great Wall. The Ming government used to take a series of effective measures to enhance its administration for the areas outside the Great Wall. The most famous historic events include negotiation for peace and marriage of peace. Afterwards, the Great Wall was turned into a bustling market for trade between the Mongolian people and inner land people.

Overall, the Great Wall cannot be simply interpreted as a border of China.

Historic Value of Qin, Zhao and Yan Great Wall

The Warring States Qin, Zhao, Yan Great Wall is of great historical value. First of all, it shows that, only the construction of the Great Wall plus a certain number of troops could prevent the northern nomadic cavalry carrying out lightning raid. Without the Great Wall, even if there are a large number of infantry and cavalry, it is still not defense. The Warring States period plenty of historical facts have proved this point. Because the Great Wall is effective military defense project, and later adopted by Qin Shihuang. Qin Shihuang after the expulsion of the Huns in Mobei, ordered Meng Tian immediately to build the new Great Wall.

Great Wall of China

Secondly, the Great Wall during the Warring States of Qin, Zhao, Yan is based on the situation with the wall built upon the mountains, valley and plain areas. Building high thick walls is to defend Hun and Donghu cavalry. Beyond the Great Wall, both inside and outside the commanding sections they also built Beacon Tower, for scouting and delivering a message, letting the Great Wall garrison ready. At the traffic intersection of the wall built barrier city, garrison, to strengthen the defensive ability of the Great Wall. Within the Great Wall, at a distance, the city had built the garrison and a message prompt communication network, so that the wall is unified to support each other. The Great Wall and Beacon Tower, City Passes and other ancillary buildings constitute a complete military defense system.

This set of military defense system is scientific and effective. It is very important for later military defensive project. Meng Tian had built the Great Wall of Qin Dynasty, although all new, but obviously, he designed it based on the wall built during the Warring States Qin, Zhao, Yan. For example, he used the mountain terrain, because of the dangers to build city barrier. He built the Great Wall upon the mountains, ridges, peaks and ridges for the city so that Xiongnu cavalry, unable to cross the river. Sometimes the Great Wall was built in the river, as the enemy is not good with water. Qin Great Wall Beacon Tower has improved, built in the open mountain, but according to the terrain, every 10 meters built a tower. The city also has improved barrier for traffic by the mouth of valley.

Overall, the Great Wall of Qin, Zhao and Yan played a key role in Chinese architectural history.

Main Structure on Great Wall

Great Wall is the main part of this defense system. It was built in the lofty mountains and steep hills or Plains and obstacles, according to need of terrain and defense function and construction. In the plain or fortified place the wall is built very tall and sturdy, and in the alpine built low and narrow, in order to save manpower and cost. Even some of the steep sections are built in place which is hard to approach, like the Juyongguan, Badaling, Shanxi, Gansu and other areas of the Great Wall, with an average of about seven or eight meters high; from the bottom to the top of the wall thickness of about six or seven meters, a width of four or five meters. At the top of the wall, it is arranged in the inner side, more than one meter high, to prevent the soldiers while patrolling from dropping off the wall. Lateral side is set with crenel wall, 2 meters high. The upper crenel wall set at the mouth, the lower part of a fire hole and grind stone hole, to watch the enemy and shot through, or rolling stones down.

Great Wall

The city pass is very important, located in the favorable defensive terrain with very little force to resist the powerful invaders, vividly explaining the importance of pass city. Along the Great Wall the city is big or small. Near some big pass city are more than ten small pass cities on the mountain near the customs, common components of the Great Wall defense engineering construction system. Some important Pass City has several lines, such as in the area beyond Shanhaiguan Pass. The north of Badaling is the most important defense of Juyongguan sentinel. Beacon Tower is one of the most important parts of the Great Wall defense. Its role is to act as transmitting military facilities. Beacon Tower is used for the transmission of information which has been around for a long time. Transfer method is burning smoke during the day, setting the fire at night (because the daytime sunlight is very strong, the fire is not easy to see), night light visible from far away. This way of transmitting information is very scientific and very rapid method. There are some ways to signal the number of the invaders with smoke and fire, to enhance the alarm effect.

Overall, the Great Wall is more than just a long wall, but a complicated engineering feat.

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